Mostar Institute of Space & Astronautical Science
Project M93 (Mostar 1993) dives back into an alternate world, where the allied powers of the Croats and the Bosniaks lost the Bosnian War in 1992, and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continues to rule its six republics, including Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1993. Vena is a Yugoslav architect commissioned by the Ministry of Post War Reconstruction of Yugoslavia to reconstruct the war torn city of Mostar from a utopian point of view, right after the destruction. The utopian architecture of Mostar must be able to reflect the characteristics of Yugoslav architecture - experimental, decentralised and permissive - contrast with the principles of socialist realism, to emphasise this country’s independence from the Soviet Union. Throughout the project, Vena also discovered a controversial multi-billion-dollar deal between President Josip Broz Tito and the United States for a clandestine Yugoslav space programme back in the sixties... Hence Mostar Institute of Space and Astronautical Science is proposed to bring back the Yugoslav geek culture, which has been the greatest interest of the Yugoslav people.
Project Award Nominations
Top 50 Shortlisted Entries in RIBAJ Eye Line (2017)
Nominated RIBA President’s Silver Medal Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom (2017)
Nominated All Round Excellence Award Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom (2017)
Nominated Best Perspective View (CAD/Hand Drawn) Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom (2017)
Nominated Female Student Excellence Award Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom (2017)
Drawing techniques : CAD line drawing, digital collage and 3D modelling.
Sinturbanizam (synthesis urbanism) is Vjenceslav Richter's full-fledged utopian vision in the socialist Yugoslavia in the 60s. The idea is about compressing the cities into “ziggurats” to solve mobility issues, exploring facades with cascading apartment units, each with a generous terrace. Each ziggurat functions as a self-managing community. The utopian vision is contemporary to Yona Friedman’s urban voids, Japanese Metabolism and Archigram due to their shared characteristics - a focus on mobility, a technocratic approach to solving problem, organicism as the underlying metaphor for the solution and megastructure as specific form of solution.
The drawings show collage developments of megastructures derived from the utopian vision of sinturbanizam and the concept of Mostar hill-town for Beirut Apartment.
Drawing techniques : Digital collage, 3D modelling, CAD line drawing.
Weathering of Concrete
Weathering is the effect of pollution and natural forces, such as frost, rain and sunlight on a structure, which happens significantly to most building facade in Yugoslavia. The main weathering issue with concrete is unexpected variations in the visual appearance of the structure. Dust in the atmosphere is deposited on the facade. The flow of rainwater tends to wash some areas preferentially, resulting in significant differences in colour between clean and dirty areas. The phenomenon is influenced by many factors, including the surface texture of the concrete, the architectural detailing and the orientation of the structure. The external factors could be rainfall and air pollution. Rainfall is usually slightly acidic due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the water in the atmosphere. Air pollution in the form of sulphur dioxide increases the acidity of the rain due to the formation of sulphuric acid. This tends to etch the surface of concrete or mortar, and create the natural and rustic aesthetic of weathering.
The newly proposed Neretva Hotel has a signature cascading form of the Yugoslav hotel architecture with large balconies, provides optimum river view to the users. It is a reinforced concrete structure finished with cement screeding. Groove lines on the facade justify the proportion of the monumental building scale and give rustic weathering effect to the building.
Tombstone Facade of Razvitak Mall
Stecci is the name for monumental medieval tombstones that lie scattered across Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the border of part of Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia. An estimated 60,000 are found within the borders of modern Bosnian and Herzegovina and the rest of 10,000 are found in Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia. Stecaks (plural) are described as stone, monolithic, horizontal and vertical tombstone prismatic shape with flat or gable-top surface, with or without pedestal. The most remarkable feature is their decorative motifs, many of which remain enigmatic to this day - spirals, arcades, rosettes, vine leaves and grapes, stars and crescent moons are among the images that appear. Figural motifs include processions of deer, horse, dancing the kolo, hunting, chivalric tournaments. The most famous image is the man with his right hand raised, perhaps in a gesture of fealty.
In Project M93, the damaged Razvitak Mall is reconstructed as a reinforced concreted structure finished with cement screeding. The remaining Stećci pieces from the former Razvitak Mall are reconstructed and reintegrated within the new facade. Groove lines on the facade justify the proportion of the monumental building scale and give rustic weathering effect to the building. The facade glass panels break down the monumentality as well as to provide visibility from inside.
Drawing techniques : Hand-drawn ink line and watercolour.
25 March 1993
Mostar, Bosnia & Herzegovina
What a hectic but fruitful first day in Mostar!
Today marks our first presentation of Project : Mostar 1993 to the Ministry of Post Conflict Rehabilitation. About a month ago, I received an unexpected phone call from Minister Dobroslav to take up a reconstruction job for Mostar. In the conversation, he sounded rather positive and constantly expressed his high expectation for the project as the state government is ready to invest more in Mostar, due to its potential of becoming another socialist catalyst city in the Bosnian region after Sarajevo. He wanted the damaged city to be redesigned from a utopian point of view, which should reflect the characteristics of Yugoslav architecture - experimental, decentralised and permissive.
As a Yugoslavian, I always acknowledge the fact that our architecture has been a contrast to the principles of Socialist realism, serving the late President Josip Broz Tito’s wish to emphasise our country’s independence from the Soviet Union since the late forties. Bogdan Bogdanovic’s work is one of the best examples to represent Yugoslav architecture for its experimental, archaic and mythological forms. Ever since Tito’s death in 1980, Yugoslav architecture has been losing its sparks, mainly due to political instabilities. We almost forgot how Yugoslav architecture excelled at its technology advancement after World War II, how we attracted worldwide attention for our intensive experiments in reinventing social relations, how we plunged into experimentation and utopian thinking without reservation for creating futuristic yet pragmatic architecture.
In today’s meeting, we presented the utopian architecture of Mostar through some designs for postcards and collages of some of Vjenceslav Richter’s works. The Ministry was very impressed by the design methodology as well as the idea of continuing and realising Vjenceslav Richter’s concept of “sinturbanizam” (synthesis urbanism), probably the only full-fledged utopian vision ever imagined in the socialist Yugoslavia back in the fifties. The idea is to compress the cities into “ziggurats” to solve the problem of mobility and to minimise time wasted in travelling. Its signature shape is formed by apartment units cascading down its sides, each with a generous terrace. The intention is to have each ziggurat functioning as a self-managing community, with all living functions as part of the collective organism, gaining a sense of belonging and responsibility. Richter’s sinturbanizam is contemporary to Yona Friedman’s urban voids, Japanese Metabolism and Archigram due to their shared characteristics: a focus on mobility, a technocratic approach to solving problems, organicism as the underlying metaphor for the solution and megastructure as specific form of solution.
Despite the Ministry’s ambitious vision for the future Mostar, we also have a concern with preserving a handful of significant and repairable post-war monuments in Mostar, like the Neretva Hotel, Bristol Hotel, Razvitak Mall, Beirut Apartment and Mostar Railway Station, which we have successfully incorporated in today’s proposal. We are glad that the Ministry shares our thoughts, as we believe this city needs a proper representation of its past for a dynamic and optimistic future, carrying the mutual culture and symbolism vital to its society.
Drawing techniques : Digital collage, paper & card modelling, wood block modelling, 3D modelling.
16 June 1993
I just heard the most outrageous story today!
I always remember how passionate the Yugoslav people were about science and technology back in the sixties and seventies. Thanks to the Tito-Stalin split in 1948, it was easier for Yugoslavians to smuggle computers in from Italy compared to other countries in the Soviet Bloc. Since Nikola Tesla also came from Croatia, Yugoslavia has also contributed to the flourishing sci-fi, comic book and tech scene in this region. Some sci-fi stories even came with ideological messages from utopian communists for propaganda purposes.
This morning, the Ministry of Post Conflict Rehabilitation called for an urgent meeting at The Government Building. I was told that the agenda was to discuss the latest updates of Project M93, and I must come alone. I did not like this feeling of secrecy. The Ministry wanted me to meet a man named Ivan Pavic, who was one of the thirty Yugoslav engineers forced to leave his family, fake his death and funeral to move and work for NASA undercover, whilst everyone including their families thought they had been killed in a road accident thirty years ago! His return was an undisclosed arrangement by the state government for him to take up the position as a special consultant for Project : Mostar 1993, because the Ministry has decided to make Mostar a Yugo-Futurist Town! This development would serve as a space and astronautical science centre to protect and nurture Yugoslavia’s most intellectual resources. The nation’s greatest scientists and geniuses will be provided with a supportive work environment with state-of-the-art homes, facilities and institutions.
Mr Pavic’s story reminds me of the conspiracy theory of Yugoslavia being the forgotten third player in the Space Race after the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War , where Tito made a secret multi- billion-dollar deal with the United States for Yugoslavia’s clandestine space programme in the early sixties (perhaps explaining how we got overseas financial aid to boost our economy). The myth indicated that the United States was furious with Tito as the imported space programme was underdeveloped and failed to deliver its promised results for NASA’s future moon landing. Hence, the poor Mr Pavic and his entire space program team were forced to move to Houston to make the technology work.
Whether the story is true or not, the state government’s idea of creating an astronautical and space science centre in Mostar is rather brilliant. Considering Mostar was already the home for a Yugoslav military aircraft manufacturer, what could be more meaningful than bringing back the greatest interest of our Yugoslav people and making full use of our skills and knowledge in science and technology? Giving myself a head start on the new direction, I could already visualise how the science labs are going to sit under a socialist A-Frame, ziggurat structure, with a futuristic sci-fi movie setting, like one of those in Ken Adam’s Bond movies or Dr Strangelove.
Besides all the political complications, Vena, as a responsible architect, always explores ways to bring solution-based approaches to conflict-affected societies. In Mostar, she engages experimental preservation in response to the expanding scope of cultural heritage concerns, revitalising the architectural legacy of Yugoslavia by reinterpreting utopian architectural ideals, applying socialist-oriented solutions to accelerate the economy recovery and seeking to empower the greatest interest of the Yugoslav people in science and technology. Post-war reconstruction is a highly sensitive issue, politically and socially, as poorly conceived reconstruction priorities may lead to vast amounts of wasted time, money and compromised opportunities. All stages of reconstruction must consider humanitarian concerns as the top priority that drives the wider revitalisation effort forward.
Drawing techniques : Digital collage, film footage.
Drawing techniques : Photography, film footage of The Cathedral, Sniper Tower, Tito's underground aircraft hanger in Gnojnice, Neretva Hotel and Hotel Bristol.
The aim of the performance was to create an intimate environment that would encourage dialogue with the local people of Mostar. We took several steps to create this environment, the first one being to place a table and chairs on Tito’s Bridge in order to invite people to sit down with us. Actually sitting at a table, we felt, encouraged a deeper conversation that would normally be had with someone just passing by. On the table we placed a homemade cookie cake that we had baked earlier that morning to attract people’s attention and to offer them a gift. We also placed a flower on the table to make it more inviting, and create a more intimate environment.
Lastly, we used Bosnian phrases like ‘Izvoli ovu haranu’ to initiate conversation and invite people to sit down and eat with us. We chose Tito’s bridge as the location for our ‘performance’ as we found it to be well populated, with many people travelling from the Gymnasium back across the river, particularly at lunch time. We also felt that the river was an ideal position to engage in intimate dialogue as it was a neutral area and a symbol of identity in Mostar. On reflection, we found our experiment to be quite successful. We were able to engage in long conversations with a variety of age groups and genders, and perhaps offer them a connection with someone that they may not have otherwise had that day. Overall, we enjoyed giving this gift of food and conversation, and perhaps benefitted more from these connections with people than the locals did themselves.
Drawing techniques : Photography, film footage, digital collage, CAD line drawing.
Group members : Carine Chin (filming, photography), Jonathan Boyd (performer, drawing), Chanel Currow (performer, writing), Marta Gil (coordinator), Leire Mesa (performer), Melanie Ohar (coordinator)
Student Services Hub
A future learning and collaborative space in Oxford city centre, where the university students meet, interact, socialise, learn, work and play. The project has been explored through all possible means, such as the physical changes of the site itself as well as the reprogramming of the Internal Skins via interventions. The synthesis of what can be expected from a future learning space is in relation to continuity in space through movements, blended boundaries, human connectivity and interaction, and integrated wholeness. The proposed design focuses on connecting the existing buildings and experimenting various deployable Internal Skins, such as Issey Miyake’s Pleats Please as a design methodology to create new architecture within the existing alleyway architecture. The Internal Skins shape spaces, circulations and movements within the buildings as well as introduce new volumes and levels.
Drawing techniques : Paper modelling, chrono-photography, 3D modelling, digital collage.
Internal Skin is about exploring the possibilities of crafting a space within a space, creating architecture within architecture. Explorations include - an expandable paper mesh demonstrating various sculptural forms to depict a state of impermanence; a hard surface fabric made of triangular cardboards demonstrating various forms to depict a state of impermanence; a Pleats Please scarf transforming to various inspiring organic and architectonic forms.
Drawing techniques : Chrono-photography, lighting installation, paper modelling, cardboard modelling, digital collage.
Photo courtesy : Engeland Apostol www.sheepairsupport.net
Drawing techniques : 3D modelling, film making, digital collage.
The new MediaCorp Headquarters at Mediapolis is designed by DP Architects, Singapore and Maki & Associates, Tokyo. Nested within Zaha Hadid's master plan, the design strategy on it's triangular site provides a unique form and place to each of the three distinct primary components : the Theatre, Broadcast Centre and Corporate Office. Project completed in 2015/16.
Reposts of the following sources :
http://www.mediacorp.sg/ (linked to Nikkei Architecture Magazine)
Copyright : DP Architects & Maki and Associates
The new Station Pier is a revamp of the historic pier on Port Philip in Port Melbourne opened since 1854. Sustainability ideas are introduced in the new development to raise public awareness broadly on environmental issues in the modern Melbourne city thereby the new building is able to self-regulate and self-sustain. The development consists of a Recycling Centre, a Green House and a Cruise Ship Terminal which is the existing usage of the pier. The Green House serves as a Living Machine, which is able to purify grey water from the development as well as from the cruise ships into clean water for irrigation and washing. Green waste from the Green House will be utilised to generate biomass power supply to the development itself. The Recycling Centre also plays an important role in educating the public about environmental issues as well as introducing recycled products at the retail aspect. To enhance the ideas of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, used carpets have been treated and widely reused in the whole development as part of the building materials, e.g. red carpet gabions as facade & interior cladding.
Departing from a paradigm whereby architectural design and technology are investigated, taught and examined as separate entities, designers are encouraged to propose and resolve their projects as integrated solutions. Formal composition, cultural and physical context, and spatial qualities of the projects are to be considered, whilst particularly demonstrating an exploration of structural and material systems. In considering design as the fusion of artistic and technological concerns, this project has considered the physical assembly of building systems as paramount to design development. Furthermore, the project has presented the architectural concept as arising from a sea of competing interests, e.g. environmental management, movement, structure and enclosure.
Drawing techniques : 3D modelling & rendering, digital collage.
Group members (diagrams only) : Carine Chin, Pei Yi Keong, Le Zhao
Since the earliest times transport has given rise to particular architectural forms. Architectural and urban forms are generated as part of transport systems (bridges, tunnels, roads, streets, runways, harbours) and have also created unique building types (wares houses, toll gates, depots, stables). This design studio has explored architecture in the service of transport, in terms of imagery, form, and movement as it seeks to develop innovative design solutions for some of the emerging transport needs of the 21st Century. An understanding of various transport types has been developed and a range of theoretical ideas has been explored in the pursuit of design solutions from the following projects.
Yarra River Ferry Terminal
A terminal for a new river ferry service on the Yarra near Swanston Street, located at Yarra River side, Melbourne, behind one of the tourist attractions, Federation Square. The service starts at Collingwood and runs via city to Docklands and Williamtown. The terminal has incorporated with seating, shelter, safety features and it is to service a maximum of 2 ferries at a time. As the proposed site is hidden down the slope, the Ferry Terminal structure is designed to elevate to meet the ground level to catch attention of the crowds from Federation Square. The Exhibition and Research Centre acts as a horizontal node; the Terminal itself as a vertical node. The Terminal grabs attention vertically from every direction through the void. The elevated bridge structure is communicating with ferry passengers for arrival via shadow casting. Columns are erected to give signal and contact to the surroundings.
Burnside Height Free Way
The project site is in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne. A new section of 6-lane free way about 1 kilometer long with sound barriers and a bridge crossing over it has been developed. The design has included a median strip, planting, sound barriers, lighting and 2-lane off/on ramps. The serenity and peacefulness at the site reflect the rhythm of life in this small town. The entire highway is elevated for the purpose of future planning for conserving more spaces on the ground and developing the town into an elevated city. The dumbbell interchange is a hybrid between the diamond interchange and roundabouts. The single bridge links roundabouts and crosses over the freeway is designed with accordance to the rhythm concept. Rhythm created by glare, light and shadow is to give quality spatial experience and yet represent speed. A vertical interchange of trams and trains is introduced between the train track and tram track underneath the bridge. For sound barriers, repetitive forms and textures along the road create the rhythm of speed and also give horizontal visual orientation to the driving experience.
Cranbourne Air Terminal
The new airport terminal and control tower is located at Cranbourne in south eastern Melbourne. The terminal and control tower is able to accommodate small to medium sized planes, including passenger jets, offering domestic service. The terminal building provides good views of the aircraft and incorporates with themes connected with aviation, travel and arrival. The new building is considered as part of a transport interchange, where passengers and freights change from one mode of transport (car, taxi, bus, bike, foot, rail) to air travel.
Drawing techniques : CAD line drawing, digital collage, cardboard modelling.
This project is to examine the impact of climate change on a small isolated community and its impact on the broader population. Fortschritt, the chosen site in Queensland is an isolated coal mining town, home to 4,500 residents. Fortschritt has lost its sole industry with the closure of the two coal mines. The township is in need of a regeneration in order to survive. The project has proposed a solar power grid that will generate electricity to supply power to all residences in the town. It is important to analyse the impact of switching non-renewable energy resources to renewable energy resources economically, socially and environmentally.
During day time, the Capsule Modulars will be dispersed from the Core Structures to run local businesses. The Modular commercial network system will become the new and main source of income for Fortschritt town. The Green House at the heart of the structure is an agriculture centre that cultivates plants and crops, which serves the second source of income. In night time, the container capsules will be returned to the designated slots and transform the entire Core Structure to a recreation and F&B centre. The increase of expenditure for healthy night life in town will help in boosting economic growth.
SONA SuperStudio Design Competition 2008 (Participation)
SuperStudio is an annual event organised by Student Organised Network for Architecture (SONA), the official student body of the Australian Institute of Architects. It is a 24-hour design competition that fosters studio culture; networking and support between students of different universities and years of study; conceptual thinking, critique and analysis of topical subjects; and interaction between the architectural profession and the community. The competition works are primarily judged based on ideas not graphic communication. A national jury selects a national winner (each team consists of three students) from the state finalists. The winning team members will receive return tickets to Venice and entry to the Venice Biennale.
Drawing techniques : Digital collage, hand-drawn & CAD line drawing.
Group members : Carine Chin, Kai Kheng Goh, Yew Keong Leong